A Literature, a Pansori, and a Life of Resentment, Cheon I-du.
(Department of Korean literature in Jeonju University)
〇 Poverty of infancy and hardship of adolescence
He was a critic, a professor in Wonkwang University and Jeonbuk national university, and a researcher of literature and Pansori. In 1929.9.24. by the lunar calendar, he was 4th son in a family of four brothers and two sisters. His father worked in a manufacturing business and his mother peddled. To his father’s the grave, his father showed dedication to his family although he liked drinking alcohol. And his father didn’t admit being idle to his family. For his life, a diligent life style appear to be naturally formed by his parents’, brothers’, and sisters’ act.
Because of poverty, his brothers’ academic ability was poor. Once Cheon I-do saw and heard it, he never forgot it. Like this, to success him who had special ability, his family gathered a goal and will. But he didn't graduate the agricultural middle school in Namwon. And it was the reason why he necessarily leaved Jeonbuk National University.
One of the Jiri mountain partizan who was captured confessed Cheon I-do’s act. He was immediately captured by CIC. In this place, he was tortured. So his family tried to save him. They took the their money and went to the Jeonju. They visited CIC and campaigned to save his life.
Dramatically he survived his life but he didn't graduated the agricultural middle school in Namwon. And he suffered from after-effect of torture and nightmare for a long time. He also became forgetful. Since he was young, his progressive view of the world was the one of the ideological background in his criticism and academic activities.
〇 Received attention as a critic in literary world of Korean
He entered department of Korean language and literature in Jeonbuk national university and was influenced and grew up as a critic and researcher of Korean language and literature. Originally, he would enter department of Law, but he selected department of Korean language and literature because of hardship of the brink of Korean war. He graduated department of Korean language and literature in Jeonbuk national university, was in an office in Iksan Namseong high school as a korean teacher, and graduated grad school of Korean language and literature in Jeonbuk National University.
In the recommendation of “modern literature”, Cho Yeon-hyeon who led him to the critics said “mixed and proper sentence in intelligence and sensibility” and gave him good review. After he started his literary career, he achieved recognition to other critics, authors, and poet. As a result, he was awarded ‘a prize of modern literature’ in 36 years old.
He was initially interested in resentment, achieved recognition as a professional critic about Hwang soon-won’s novel. In 1961, He already announced a noticeable critical essay or academic essay. As a poem, He has steadily developed theory about ‘resentment’ and applied a principle in poem, novel, and Pansori and so on.
In 1961, he resigned as a teacher in Iksan Namseong high school and transferred department of Korean language and literature as a instructor of Jeonbuk national university.
〇 The other hardship, Cheon I-do was excluded from rehiring
In 1976, Cheon I-do also experienced a big crisis. In rehiring judgment process, the true was reveled that he hasn't diploma about the agricultural highschool in Namwon. He already achieved recognition as a good critics. Though he accumulated the achievements, he was forced resignation because of diploma’s absence.
Finally, in 1976.2, he resigned Jeonbuk national university. but he never stopped learning students. At this time, he diligently taught students. For 2 years, he sincerely performed a role as a Korean teacher in girls’ high school. During his office, he was given the suggestion about principal, but rejected a proposal. Though he worked in Mangyeong total girls’ highschool for 2 years, his students gathered regularly.
The elder critics actively developed regaining the impaired reputation. As such proposal was accepted, he could have ‘the certificate of professor’. On the evidence of this certificate, he was appointed as a associate professor of department of Korean education in Wonkwang university. Especially, he was not a assistant professor but associate professor when he was a professor in Jeonbuk national university. This consideration was a cause that he remained in Wonkwang university in the end.
〇 Enjoyed a renaissance in Wonkwang university
He lived a stable life in Wonkwang University and he announced many books and theses. He was in an office in Japan university of buddhism for 1 year. Futhermore, he got his doctorate about resentment in 1991. And he reserched traditional theatric works cross-culturally.
Since 1992. 9, he has assumed a chief of college of education for 2 years and he retired Wonkwang university in 1995. He also assumed a issuer of 『Moonhwa journal』, a monthly publication. And he taught students in Wonkwang university, Jeonju university, and Baekje art university. He liked to teach a student, read a book and write a article than anything he had ever played.
In 2001, he also assumed a chief of the organizing committee about Sound & Culture Festival, but he focused on the activity of critics, scholarship, and education, and he tried to teach his students without giving up about difficulty. Because he got Alzheimer's disease after 2007, he stopped all activities. In November 2015, he is suffering from Alzheimer’s for 9 years.
〇 Cheon I-do as a friendly head of household
He excellently achieved accomplishments as a researcher of Korean literature and Pansori, issuer of a magazine and administrator and so on and so did his parents. When his brothers and sisters passed away, he initially helped funeral. So his brothers and sisters were devoted to each other.
His wife, child, and grandson were also loved by him. After dinner, all of the family took a walk near the his house. He liked to take a walk with his grandsons and he joined catholic because of his grandsons’ party. His daughter is a christian and his son is chatholic. Before his condition got worse, he went to mass every weekend and read the bible.
His children remembers that the education of his children was soft and strict. He insistently convinced and chasten his children until his children laid down their arms. Even he drank alcohol outside and happened an unpleasant matter, he never made an unkempt appearance to his sons.
〇 Cheon I-do’s house that played a role as a base and reception room
Once people know Cheon I-do, he got on with somebody. In Jeonbuk University, he had a meal and alcohol with his students. He also got along with professors and writers frequently.
Especially, he exchanged hundreds of letter with Ha keun-chan who had known each other after his middle school student and met frequently. His house was room of discussion and break area.
But he hardly drank alcohol excessively and always drank a fixed quantity. Especially, when he wrote a thesis and book, he never drank alcohol and come out of the his writing room until dawn. He qualitatively wrote critics and theses and books of the best. And he also quantitatively wrote a lot of newspaper in months and weeks and so on.
〇 A harmony of extrinsic and intrinsic critics
When he was highschool student, he was influenced radicalism and acted the act of radicalism. However, after he experienced Korean war, he aim to radicalism as a value than a ideology. His entrance of the department of Korean language and literature, the activity of literature critics, and the research of Pansori was finally a selecting result. In 1989, “Korean Modern Novel” was the first book that he wrote. This book’s preface suggested a direction of his long academic plan.
He tried to keep a harmony and balance between extrinsic and intrinsic critics when he analysed writers and works. 『Will of Synthesis』 issued in 1974 can be known this ‘harmony and balance’ in title of that book.
He was painful because of divided reality and wished the unification. He also felt sorry for the discrimination of Honam and local feelings. Because he had a his natural gift, passion, and diligence and a sincere life attitude, he can be a critic on behalf of Jeonbuk and Korea.
〇 An objective appraisal about modern times initial writers
In 『A Will of the Synthesize』, he appraised Chunwon Lee Kwang-soo who wrote 『Moojeong』, modern feature-length story, which was initially written that “In modern times and pre-modern times, Lee kwang-soo betrayed his word”
Finally Chunwon didn't overcome the gap between main agent and form, and its characters didn't stray abstractness and did the talking about writer’s ideology only. For such a reason, a appraisal about Chunwon and 『Moojeong』 have a cool-heartedness and logicality. On the basis of deep understanding and a sufficient basis about Lee Kwang-soo’s works, he criticized them.
About Kim dong-in, he appraised that Kim Dong-in was a writer who has ‘esthetics of the mettle and straight.’ And he did a fast life based on rich money. He appraised Kim Dong-in with negative appraisal and Kim’s works. About Na do-hyang, incident and appearance was well detected, but writer didn't keep the objective distance. About Choi seo-hae, he said that because he wrote his work on the basis of his experiences, his works acquired reality, but through his works, he revealed only his experience and ideology.
Like this, when he appraised modern initial works, he aimed to ‘acquire the reality.’ Such as Lee Kwang-soo and Choi Seo-hae, if they revealed their experiences or ideology, or such as Kim Dong-in, if he only insisted a fragmentary description, reality couldn’t be gotten. Reflecting a objective reality and concrete shape and careful description was ‘synthetism’ that Cheon I-do consistently insisted.
〇 The best thinkers on the research of the Hwang Soon-won
Cheon I-do received good comment as critics who Hwang’s work can understand most. Actually he firstly analyzed and appraised Hwang’s work. And his research about Hwang Soon-won was presented as direction of research to his students. He said that Hwang soon-won’s short story sought not real world but ‘world of the image.’
As his indication, Hwang soon-won always considered ‘concrete feel’ valuable. Work’s reality of Hwang Soon-won always is controled by a intellectual discipline. His intellectual discipline could boldly skip, and prevent natural expression of his live insistence.
Like this, Choen I-do insisted that as Hwang soon-won accorded a abundant nuance to images of Hwang’s works, represented his works more implicitly. Through the simple transmission of image, it was same to leave an impression to a reader’s memory. He closely argued that here was ‘a root of a soft lyric mood’.
〇 Understanding about a double-sidedness and dynamic of Kim So-wol’s poem
He generally was a critic that appraised novel than poem. But his analytical skill was as outstanding as novel. 『A Will of the Synthesize』, which was major by critic about novel, was analysed through Kim So-wol and Seo Jeong-joo’s work. His sight about Kim and Seo was ‘modernizing tradition’
This a double-sidedness and dynamic of So-wol’s poem had an effect on the systematization of ‘resentment’ theory. He said that he didn't see the ‘resentment’ about negative state and it starts negative state but passed through stage of ‘patience’ and ‘sublimate’ and changed the positive state.
He also defined ‘folk song character’ of so-wol’s poem very concretely. He pointed out that So-wol’s poem coincided demands of the public, satiric and cartoonish factors, and descriptive and oral factor with folk song.
〇 The best of Cheon I-do’s critics, 「hell and nirvana – Seo Jeong-joo」
Experts constantly said that his best critics were ‘the theory of Hwang Soon-won’ in field of novel, and ‘the theory of Seo Jeong-joo’ in field of poem. Especially, they recognized he suggested a change process more validly in 「hell and nirvana」. And it got reflected his life and a view of the world.
He initially analysed 「A Self-potrait」. He saw that ‘wind’ of intangible shape, was connected with the concept of 80 percent and exuded a birdy nuance and withstood the colonial era. His view was that ‘wind’ governed Seo jeong-joo’s life and ‘blood’ was the basic reason why this wind causes.
〇 Cheon I-do’s wide critics of writers and poem
Through many dissertations and books, he treated with writers of Japan colonial era. Because of periodical limitation, he didn't treat with writer who goes to north korea. He treated with, analysed, and appraised not only writers and poem from Japan colonial era to 1970s’ writers in monthly and weekly critics as a critic representative Korea.
〇 A new fields development of Pansori research
He continually proceeded the research about ‘resentment’. The more he deeply researched a ‘resentment’, the more his research became studied about characteristic of Pansori. At the same time, he was interested in Sin Jae-hyo, Lee Dong-baek, Kim Yeon-soo, and Lim Bang-yool. Espacially he enjoyed listening to a Lim Bang-yool’s Chang. For several years, he gathered his record. In 1986, he finally published biographic about 『One of the Greatest Singers in the World, Lim Bang-wool』.
『One of the Greatest Singers in the World, Lim Bang-wool』 wass a not a simple biographic about a singer. This book was composed of various approaches about Pansori. It also was made to deep study of Pansori. Through this characteristic of Pansori, Cheon I-do systematically proposed a theory about 『A Atudy on the Structure of Resentment』.
He also expressed a special opinion about ‘patience’ and ‘shade.’ The key point of Pansori was the function of ‘patience.’ Negative attributions of ‘resentment’ abreacted and sublimated for itself. Because ‘resentment’ had ‘a positive power’ that transferred negative emotions to positive emotions, a function of ‘patience’ could acquire a smartness and wisdom.
〇 Establishment of unique theory about ‘resentment’
『A Study on the Structure of a Resentment』 published at company of the literature and intelligence was the his representative book and this book showed the highest level work of a resentment. He generally tried to exit the existing study about ‘resentment.’ And he paid attention to a conflicting double-sidedness and dynamically saw and interpreted it. So he could change the research of ‘a resentment.’
Korean people matured enduring, and enjoying ‘resentment’, and sought smartness. In other words, they sought ‘smartness and wisdom.’ Like this, by the ‘patience’, negative emotion changed to the positive emotion. In the example at the top, it’s ‘Pansori’ which was the most active in Jeonju and ‘novel of Pansori’ was made on the basis of this.
Cheon I-do experienced a lot of difficulty such as poverty of his childhood, hardship at CIC, the fail of rehiring in Jeonbuk national university and so on. But he never gave up, and he was faced with a difficult situation. As a result, he was more strong and matured.
〇 Cheon I-do who was ‘resentment’ itself and its researcher
He clearly revealed the substance of ‘resentment.’ When he was a children, his family made a rescue for him. Though he was dismissed by Jeonbuk National University, he could continue at Wonkwang University by help of his acquaintances. Because of his parents’ identity and poverty, he had a hard time living his life. However, he tried to overcomethis situation. As a critic, researcher of literature and Pansori, and writer, he accumulated a lot of achievements.
He appraised individual works by regular standards. Through the this, he developed ‘a theoretical paradigm’ by himself and constructed the independent and creative academic world. He was a critic who had a outstanding talent. And he had a intuition and insight. He continually endeavored and challenged to overcome a hardship. Finally he did his best and concentrated in all given duty.
Cheon I-do’s Profile
An academic ability and main career
1929: 9.24 in lunar calendar birth in Namwon
1950: Completion of fifth-class in Namwon agricultural middle school
1955: Graduating the department of Korean language and literature in Jeonbuk national university
9(Sep.)/1955~3(Mar.)/1961: Teacher at Iri Namsung high school
3(Mar.)/1978~2(Feb.)/1995: Professor at Wonkwang University
1991: Acquiring a doctor of literature at Kyoto University of Buddhism
1992: Assuming the dean of the college of education
1994: Performing 「master singer of Pansori Lim Bang-wool」 in National Theater of Korea and the students´ hall in Jeonju
1995: Retiring at Wonkwang University in the department of college of Korean education
2001: Assuming a organizing chairperson of the world sound and cultural festival
2. An Award Winning Career
1965: Winning the prize of modern literature in critic
1983: Winning the prize of Weoltan literature
1994: Winning the prize of Moak literature
2001: Winning the grand prize of Dongri literature
3. Cheon I-do’s book
1969: 『A Theory of Modern Novel in Korea』, a publishing company of Hyungseol
1974: 『A Will of Synthesis』, a publishing company of Ilji1980: 『A View Point of Korean Novel』, a publishing company of literature and wisdom
1985: 『A Literature and Resentment of Korea』, a publishing company of ewoo
1993: 『A study on Structure of Resentment』, a publishing company of literature and wisdom
1994: 『Master Singer of Pansori Lim Bang-wool』(revised edition), a publishing company of modern literature
1998: 『A Literature of Ours Age』, a publishing company of literature dong-ne